If you ever found yourself trying to figure out shortcuts while using the Google Docs equation editor, this page might be helpful.
The Google Docs equation editor is based on the LaTeX syntax, but LaTeX is much more complex, so if you aren't familiar with LaTeX, it isn't exactly easy to try and find working shortcuts.
I made this page when I discovered that the shortcuts are actually in
the editor code (as an
arialabel
attribute on the buttons themselves), but aren't really available in an
easytosearch manner as far as I could find. I am not in any way
affiliated with Google.
If you are looking for special characters or symbols that are not listed here, you can go to Insert → Special characters from the Google Docs toolbar and search by name.
Other people have since contributed to this list. See GitHub issues for a list of contributed elements.
Element  Shortcut 

\alpha


\beta


\gamma


\delta


\epsilon


\varepsilon


\zeta


\eta


\theta


\vartheta


\iota


\kappa


\lambda


\mu


\nu


\xi


\pi


\varpi


\rho


\varrho


\sigma


\varsigma


\tau


\upsilon


\phi


\varphi


\chi


\psi


\omega


\Gamma


\Delta


\Theta


\Lambda


\Xi


\Pi


\Sigma


\Upsilon


\Phi


\Psi


\Omega

Element  Shortcut 

\times


\div


\cdot


\pm


\mp


\ast


\star


\circ


\bullet


\oplus


\ominus


\oslash


\otimes


\odot


\dagger


\ddagger


\vee


\wedge


\cap


\cup


\aleph


\Re


\Im


\top


\bot


\infty


\partial


\forall


\exists


\neg


\triangle


\diamond

Element  Shortcut 

\leq


\geq


\prec


\succ


\preceq


\succeq


\ll


\gg


\equiv


\sim


\simeq


\asymp


\approx


\ne


\subset


\supset


\subseteq


\supseteq


\in


\ni


\notin

Element  Shortcut 

\frac


\sqrt


\rootof


\subsuperscript


\subscript
or
_


\superscript
or
^


\overline


\widehat


\bigcapab


\bigcupab


\prodab


\coprodab


\rbracelr


\sbracelr


\bracelr


\abs


\int
or
\intab


\oint
or
\ointab


\sum
or
\sumab


\lim
or
\limab

Element  Shortcut 

\leftarrow


\rightarrow


\leftrightarrow


\Leftarrow


\Rightarrow


\Leftrightarrow


\uparrow


\downarrow


\updownarrow


\Uparrow


\Downarrow


\Updownarrow

Those aren't in the menus, but they work! If anything is missing, feel free to contribute on GitHub.
Element  Shortcut 

Binomial distribution 
\choose
or
\binom

Hat symbol (^) above element  \hat 
Vector symbol(→) above element  \vec 
Maximum 
\max

Minimum 
\min

Element  Shortcut 

Del / Nabla symbol  \nabla 
Angle symbol  \angle 
Element  Shortcut 

Logarithm 
\log

Natural logarithm 
\ln

Exponent 
\exp

Trigonometry functions 
\sin ,
\arcsin ,
\cos ,
\arccos ,
\tan ,
\arctan ,
\csc ,
\sec ,
\cot
